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An OpEd I submitted (reproduced below) was published in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch on Friday, July 31st, 2015. It was prompted by pedestrian deaths on a wide road in south St. Louis City caused by hit-and-run motorists. Most recently, this led to calls for action to address the problem amid suggestions for safety improvements from the public. In both cases the victims had left the Broadway Oyster Bar, shown on the left in the photo below, shortly beforehand. (Image taken from Google maps.)

Oyster Bar 730 S Broadway, St. Louis. Google maps view

Broadway Oyster Bar 730 S Broadway, St. Louis. Google maps view

The road here is approximately 50 ft wide with three one-way (southbound) lanes, and a 35 mph speed limit. The curb lanes are wide enough to also permit metered parking.

My preferred traffic calming measure would be to install speed cushions (described in my OpEd) on a trial basis, but that should be in conjunction with a reduction in the speed limit to 25 mph, which is what others have also suggested.

Speed humps can slow down traffic, protect pedestrians
Street safety:
Traffic-calming devices are a cost-effective way of preventing tragedies.

The deaths of pedestrians on South Broadway, St. Louis City, due to speeding motorists, most recently that of Mr. Ashish “Bapi” Gupta on June 28, have led to calls for an increase in pedestrian safety on this road. The campaign in support includes a website, “Bapi Safe Streets,” as reported in the July 13th St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Some suggestions mentioned in the article included ”perhaps using cobblestones.”

Pion

Pion

The idea of using cobblestones reminds me of the one occasion I bicycled around Laclede’s Landing where cobblestoned streets provide a retro look, but an awful ride.

Other techniques, such as speed “bumps,” are sometimes used in parking lots or private streets to slow down vehicles. “Bumps” are a brain-dead method. They jolt your vehicle mercilessly unless you drive either very slowly or floor the accelerator so that you fly over them before your suspension has time to react.

Finally, there’s the stop sign. It’s intended to define priority at intersections, not calm traffic, but it’s often successfully demanded by local residents for the latter purpose.

There are actually numerous traffic calming devices available in the transportation engineers toolbox. They include:
lane narrowing by simple pavement markings;
-chokers, including median islands, to physically narrow the lanes;
raised crosswalks;
traffic circles
chicanes forcing horizontal vehicle deflections;
speed humps, causing vertical vehicle deflections.

They have different operating characteristics, and some are more successful than others. The speed hump, and its more recent derivative, the speed cushion, offer a preferred solution, yet they are the least used locally.

I first became interested in traffic calming in England while a scientist working at ITT’s Central Research Lab. We had a speeding problem on the main campus road, and after learning about speed humps installed on a university campus, persuaded management to install two at strategic locations where they worked very effectively.

East London speed humps, 2002

Speed cushion on Keppel Road in east London

East London speed hump closeup

East London speed cushion closeup

At the time they weren’t approved for use on public roads, but later that changed, as I discovered on a visit to England in early 2002.

While bicycling through east London I encountered a series of speed cushions on a side street with a 30 mph speed limit, as shown in the attached photo. Each speed cushion is 6 ft. 8 in. long by 6 ft. wide, and 3” high, arranged in a line across the road but separated so that emergency vehicles can straddle them.

[Please review my blog featuring the speed cushion I bought for demonstration purposes at 2013-02-25: Ford F-150 truck Traficop “speed cushion” test. To just view the video of the test please visit https://vimeo.com/60523630]

The most comprehensive traffic calming pilot project in the metro area was implemented by the City of Chesterfield in 1999, centered on Schoettler Valley Drive, costing roughly $100,000. It included speed humps, a large one lane roundabout, and landscaped medians for lane narrowing. The speed humps proved too effective for a Chesterfield alderwoman on her preferred route to work. She persuaded the independent Chesterfield Fire Department to withdraw its initial support and the city was forced to tear them out.

A PowerPoint presentation I’ve prepared illustrates all types of traffic calming devices, including videotape of the Chesterfield project and a smaller one in Ballwin incorporating a chicane and mini-roundabout. The presentation includes the precursor of the modern speed hump, a design conceived in 1953 by Dr. Arthur Holly Compton, a Nobel Laureate in Physics, while he was Chancellor of Washington University St. Louis. There are examples of his single-hump design on Hoyt Drive, installed after his death.

I’ve shown this presentation, and a speed cushion I bought for demonstration purposes, to former Public Works Directors in my home town of Ferguson and also in Clayton, as well as to transportation engineers at Horner & Shiffrin in St. Louis, which had conducted a 2005 Traffic Calming Study for the City of Ferguson. Unfortunately none has adopted it for traffic calming.

However, in October 2009, the City of Wildwood purchased a set of rubber speed cushions to try out on Old Fairway Drive to deter speeding. They were replaced by asphalt versions before winter plowing and have proved sufficiently successful to have been duplicated at several other locations.

Speed cushions are a cost effective way of preventing such tragedies as the death of Mr. Gupta. Their use should be seriously considered.

Martin Pion of Ferguson is a scientist and 43-year cycle commuter, and a certified League of American Bicyclists cycling instructor.

Tags: Traffic Calming, Ferguson, Arthur Holly Compton, Washington University St. Louis, Martin Pion

The following slides were recently reposted by Dan Gutierrez on the Cyclists are Drivers Facebook site he moderates after I posted a request there. They are from the comprehensive copyrighted presentation Dan originally posted on-line (which can now be viewed here: Old Road I (now TS101) Introduction).
This material is a small part of the groundbreaking work produced by Dan Gutierrez and Brian DeSousa.

The slide below was posted by Dan in response to a reference to the non-visual Five Layers of Bicycling Safety. This is the final slide in a five-slide series which he posted, followed by a detailed explanation:

Click any image to enlarge. Use back arrow top left to return to this page.

Click any image to enlarge. Use back arrow top left to return to this page.

Dan Gutierrez: The important talking point about this diagram is that the layers are cumulative and build upon each other, with the first 4 to eliminate crashes, to hopefully NEVER reach layer 5, which is only useful AFTER a crash occurs. The main motivation for making this diagram is to show that bicyclist skill development is the 1st through 4th lines of crash avoidance, and that helmet use does NOTHING to avoid crashes, but is useful if a crash occurs.

I spent a lot of time working on this diagram to get the right look and feel for the colors and sizes so it would look like a buildup.

In light of my increased knowledge today versus 2007, I might be tempted to color the 5th layer a shade of red and the 4th layer yellow or orange, to emphasize that they are reactive, vs the proactive first three layers.          [My emphasis.]

Below are Dan Gutierrez’s five slides titled Integrated “Skill Layers” after I edited the colors of the 4th and 5th layers to reflect Dan’s current views noted above. In addition, Dan pointed out subsequently that these five slides precede a sixth slide with a pie chart titled Skill Layers Cut Crash Causes, showing which skills remove which crash types.

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Dan Gutierrez: Layer 3 – If you look at Cycling Savvy, it embraces elements of this layer, which were not a key focus of Bike Ed at the time. I see Cycling Savvy as the refined end product of the curriculum basics Brian and I were trying to persuade the League to embrace. I’m glad that Mighk and Keri created a real program that teaches these lessons. Note that transitions between control and sharing is now referred to as control and release (and re-establishment of control) in CS.

Skill Layers 4c

Skill Layers 5b

Note that the last layer is “Injury Reduction.” When all the other layers fail the danger of injury can be mitigated by wearing a bicycle helmet and cycling gloves. But this should not be treated as the first line of defense, contrary to the U.S. emphasis on helmet wearing and mandatory bicycle helmet laws that reinforce this view.

Crash causes 418222_2994245106522_787481150_n

         

ADDITIONAL BACKGROUND NOTES:

Brian DeSousa on tandem & (inset) Dan Gutierrez

Brian DeSousa on tandem &
(inset) Dan Gutierrez

This material was created by Dan Gutierrez and Brian DeSousa after they had perfected helmet-mounted videotaping when bicycling on-road. Dan and Brian founded Dual Chase Productions, LLC, to promote their extensive on-road taping of each other when riding close together in line. As part of that effort they produced and sold a CD called Integrated Traffic Cycling ™ dated June 10th, 2007.

Later, Dan and Brian published updated and expanded information on-line, some of which can be found on Dan’s Facebook page at Old Road I (now TS101) Introduction as noted above. They have unique backgrounds which contributed to the value of this material, as shown in the first slide below, which is actually the last in the above series.

The second slide below states John Forester’s “Integration Principle,” illustrated in slides 3 and 4 which follow it.

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Nick Kasoff controlling the curb lane on W. Florissant Ave.

Nick Kasoff controlling the curb lane on W. Florissant Ave., October 8, 2014.
Still image captured from video below as I was on my bike a short distance ahead taping forward and backward.

West Florissant Ave. is a major north-south four-lane arterial in Ferguson and Dellwood, North St. Louis County. The idea of developing and improving it is laudable in principle, and more urgent since the violence, looting and destruction of some local businesses in August, 2014, sparked by the shooting death of 18-year-old Michael Brown by former 26-year-old Ferguson Police Officer Darren Wilson. The commercial areas along this approximately 2.6 mile section were in need of rejuvenating before these events, and that is even more urgent now. However, it will require a substantial commitment of resources, and even marginally important issues will deserve attention.

One of these concerns details of the “Great Streets” proposal which envisages the inclusion of a mixed-use bicycle-pedestrian path on the east side of the road and separated from the road itself by a green lawn planted with trees. Architecturally, this might well enhance the area, but it can also have adverse consequences. For example, such facilities are typically limited to off-road locations, such as Rail-to-Trails conversions, where they are not interacting with shops and businesses or expose users to potentially frequent interactions with motorists at commercial driveways and cross-streets.

Another concern is the impact such a facility would have on bicyclists wanting to continue exercising lane control on four-lane W. Florissant Ave. Based on experience on other roads in the area, once a bicycle facility, such as a striped bike lane, is added to a road, motorists expect cyclists to stay in it; they don’t readily tolerate a cyclist exercising lane control, even though that is generally safest for the cyclist and, in Ferguson, explicitly allowed by local ordinance.

(The reason this is often safest is that in that position the cyclist is no longer as susceptible to right hooks, which occur when a motorist passes a cyclist and then turns right immediately in front of him or her, often due to underestimating the cyclist’s speed and risking a car-bike collision. Left hooks can still occur, often for the same reason, i.e. misjudging the cyclist’s speed, and turning left directly in front of them, but the cyclist then has more room to avoid the motorist than when riding near the curb.)

Some of these issues are dealt with in this short video below, which draws attention to the need to provide proper signage and road markings to underscore cyclists’ legitimate right to the road while minimizing the likelihood of negative and potentially hazardous interactions with motorists.


How to make W. Florissant Ave “Great Streets” Plan better from Martin Pion on Vimeo.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA This is a photo of the helmet-mounted front and rear facing camera setup I used when videotaping Nick Kasoff for the above video. The cameras are mounted on a galvanized steel support I bent up in my garage and then bolted to an old rigid-shell Bell Tourlite helmet, which I’ve used for many years. On the inside are secured thick rigid foam pads so that it’s a snug fit on my head.

ADDITIONAL BACKGROUND In a parking lot before the ride, as I was preparing my helmet-mounted cameras for videotaping, Nick Kasoff remarked on a helicopter hovering almost directly overhead. Short clips captured inadvertently record these snippets of conversation and are pasted below. It transpired that a fatal shooting had occurred at the nearby Park Ridge Apartments, apparently involving an innocent victim of a drug deal gone horribly wrong, and this was a Fox 2 News TV helicopter. A St. Louis Post-Dispatch story by reporter Christine Byers is on-line here: Man shot at Ferguson apartment complex dies.
Apartment complexes in SE Ferguson

This is a report previously circulated on a limited basis, primarily to the Ferguson City Council who provided the 20% local match needed to obtain the remaining 80% funding from the Federal Highways Administration (FHWA).

Metro St. Louis was (and still is) out of compliance with the federal Clean Air Act, and the project was approved from among competitive proposals for a Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) grant.

The purpose of the federal grant was to implement proposed ways to encourage cycling to two major activity centers within a roughly 10 mile radius of Ferguson in North St. Louis County. The activity centers were the former McDonnell Douglas Co., now part of Boeing, and the University of Missouri – St. Louis (UMSL). This initial report was to determine the baseline bicycling situation for later comparison as the project progressed or ended.

The goal was to encourage more bicycling to Boeing and UMSL by soundly-based bicycle education, based on the League of American Bicyclists foundation minimum 9 hour Road I course, combined with bike-related on-site facilities improvements. At Boeing, this was envisaged as being primarily improved and additional bike parking, locker facilities for holding a change of clothes etc., and benches and showers. On the UMSL campus the focus was on substantially increased and improved bike parking.

Appended below relating to the baseline survey are the following:

1) The TIP409Report (Transportation Improvement Project) 20 page text-only report.

2) The figures accompanying the report are featured in a detailed descriptive PowerPoint slideshow Ferguson_BIKE_Survey_BPAC4d presented to East-West Gateway Council of Governments (EW Gateway) Bicycle-Pedestrian Advisory Committee in October 2004. EW Gateway was responsible for originally approving the project for the FHWA grant.

A few of the subsequent activities and improvements are described elsewhere on this blog:
Quality Ferguson Bike Racks installed in 2006.






         

The current Missouri State Statutes concerning bicyclists can be found on-line by searching for “MO Bike Law.”

The Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) version may be downloaded as a pdf file (MO_bikelaw_120505_000.pdf). The regulations may also be viewed on-line on the Missouri Bicycle and Pedestrian Federation website (http://mobikefed.org/content/missouris-bicycle-and-pedestrian-laws).

The latter contains “304.285. Red light violations” which is omitted from the MoDOT version, dated August 2005. This was evidently enacted August 28, 2013, according to Missouri Revised Statutes, Chapter 304, Traffic Regulations, Section 304.285.

Below is the relevant current language of the Missouri State Statutes Regarding Bicyclists:

Missouri State Statutes Regarding Bicyclists

300.347. Riding Bicycle On Sidewalks, Limitations – Motorized Bicycles Prohibited

(1) No person shall ride a bicycle upon a sidewalk within a business district; (2) Whenever any person is riding a bicycle upon a sidewalk, such person shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian and shall give audible signal before overtaking and passing such pedestrian; (3) No person shall ride a motorized bicycle upon a sidewalk.

300.350. Riding Bicycles, Sleds, Roller Skates, By Attaching To Another Vehicle, Prohibited

No person riding upon any bicycle, motorized bicycle, coaster, roller skates, sled or toy vehicle shall attach the same or himself to any vehicle upon a roadway.

300.330. Bicycle Lane Regulations

The driver of a motor vehicle shall not drive within any sidewalk area except as a permanent or temporary driveway. A designated bicycle lane shall not be obstructed by a parked or standing motor vehicle or other stationary object. A motor vehicle may be driven in a designated bicycle lane only for the purpose of a lawful maneuver to cross the lane or to provide for safe travel. In making an otherwise lawful maneuver that requires traveling in or crossing a designated bicycle lane, the driver of a motor vehicle shall yield to any bicycle in the lane. As used in this section, the term “designated bicycle lane” shall mean a portion of the roadway or highway that has been designated by the governing body having jurisdiction over such roadway or highway by striping with signing or striping with pavement markings for the preferential or exclusive use of bicycles.

300.411 And 304.678 Overtake Bicycles At A Safe Distance

(1) The operator of a motor vehicle overtaking a bicycle proceeding in the same direction on the roadway, as defined in section 300.010, RSMo, shall leave a safe distance, when passing the bicycle, and shall maintain clearance until safely past the overtaken bicycle. (2) Any person who violates the provisions
of this section is guilty of an infraction unless an accident is involved in which case it shall be a class C misdemeanor.

304.285. Red light violations

Any person operating a motorcycle or bicycle who violates the provisions of section 304.281 or section 304.301 by entering or crossing an intersection controlled by a traffic control signal against a red light shall have an affirmative defense to that charge if the person establishes all of the following conditions:

(1) The motorcycle or bicycle has been brought to a complete stop;

(2) The traffic control signal continues to show a red light for an unreasonable time;

(3) The traffic control is apparently malfunctioning or, if programmed or engineered to change to a green light only after detecting the approach of a motor vehicle, the signal has apparently failed to detect the arrival of the motorcycle; and

(4) No motor vehicle or person is approaching on the street or highway to be crossed or entered or is so far away from the intersection that it does not constitute an immediate hazard.

The affirmative defense of this section applies only to a violation for entering or crossing an intersection controlled by a traffic control signal against a red light and does not provide a defense to any other civil or criminal action.]

307.180. Bicycle And Motorized Bicycle, Defined

As used in sections 307.180 to 307.193: (1) The word bicycle shall mean every vehicle propelled solely by human power upon which any person may ride, having two tandem wheels, or two parallel wheels and one or two forward or rear wheels, all of which are more than fourteen inches in diameter, except scooters and similar devices; (2) The term motorized bicycle shall mean any two or three-wheeled device having an automatic transmission and a motor with a cylinder capacity of not more than fifty cubic centimeters, which produces less than three gross brake horsepower, and is capable of propelling the device at a maxi- mum speed of not more than thirty miles per hour on level ground. A motorized bicycle shall be considered a motor vehicle for purposes of any homeowners- or renters- insurance policy.

307.183. Brakes Required

Every bicycle and motorized bicycle shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which will enable its driver to stop the bicycle or motorized bicycle within twenty-five feet from a speed of ten miles per hour on dry, level, clean pavement.

307.185 Lights And Reflectors, When Required – Standards To Be Met

Every bicycle and motorized bicycle when in use on a street or highway during the period from one-half hour after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise shall be equipped with the following: (1) A front-facing lamp
on the front or carried by the rider which shall emit a white light visible at night under normal atmospheric conditions on a straight, level, unlighted roadway at five hundred feet; (2) A rear-facing red reflector, at least two square inches in reflective surface area, or a rear-facing red lamp, on the rear which shall be visible at night under normal atmospheric conditions on a straight, level, unlighted roadway when viewed by a vehicle driver under the lower beams of vehicle head-lights at six hundred feet; (3) Ref lective material and/or lights visible from the front and the rear on any moving part of the bicyclists, pedals, crank arms, shoes or lower leg, visible from the front and the rear at night under normal atmospheric conditions on a straight, level, unlighted roadway when viewed by a vehicle driver under the lawful lower beams of vehicle headlights at two hundred feet; and (4) Reflective material and/or lights visible on each side of the bicycle or bicyclist visible at night under normal atmospheric conditions on a straight, level, unlighted roadway when viewed by a vehicle driver under the lawful lower beams of vehicle headlights at three hundred feet. The provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to motorized bicycles which comply with National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration regulations relating to reflectors on motorized bicycles.

307.188. Rights And Duties Of Bicycle And Motorized Bicycle Riders

Every person riding a bicycle or motorized bicycle upon a street or highway shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle as provided by chapter 304, RSMo, except as to special regulations in sections 307.180 to 307.193 and except as to those provisions of chapter 304, RSMo, which by their nature can have no application.

307.190. Riding To Right, Required For Bicycles And Motorized Bicycles

Every person operating a bicycle or motorized bicycle at less than the posted speed or slower than the f low of traffic upon a street or highway shall ride as near to the right side of the roadway as safe, exercising due care when passing a standing vehicle or one proceeding in the same direction, except when making a left turn, when avoiding hazardous conditions, when the lane is too narrow to share with another vehicle or when on a one-way street. Bicyclists may ride abreast when not impeding other vehicles.

307.191. Shoulder Riding, Allowed But Not Required For Bicyclist Operators


(1) A person operating a bicycle at less than the posted speed or slower than the f low of traffic upon a street or highway may operate as described in section 307.190, or may operate on the shoulder adjacent to the roadway. (2) A bicycle operated on a roadway, or the shoulder adjacent to a roadway, shall be operated in the same direction as vehicles are required to be driven upon the roadway. (3) For purposes of this section and section 307.190, “roadway,” means that portion of a street or highway ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder.

307.192. Bicyclists May Signal Right Turn With Right Arm

The operator of a bicycle shall signal as required in section 304.019, RSMo, except that a signal by the hand and arm need not be given continuously if the hand is needed to control or operate the bicycle. An operator of a bicycle intending to turn the bicycle to the right shall signal as indicated in section 304.019, RSMo, or by extending such operator’s right arm in a horizontal position so that the same may be seen in front and in rear of the vehicle.

307.193. Penalty For Violation

Any person seventeen years of age or older who violates any provision of sections 307.180 to 307.193 is guilty of an infraction and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not less than five dollars nor more than twenty-five dollars. Such an infraction does not constitute a crime and conviction shall not give rise to any disability or legal disadvantage based on conviction of a criminal offense. If any person under seventeen years of age violates any provision of sections 307.180 to 307.193 in the presence of a peace officer possessing the duty and power of arrest for violation of the general criminal laws of the state or for violation of ordinances of counties or municipalities of the state, said officer may impound the bicycle or motorized bicycle involved for a period not to exceed five days upon issuance of a receipt to the child riding it or to its owner.

The current St. Louis County ordinance concerning bicyclists is both confusing and discriminatory.

It is confusing because it includes non-motorized scooter operators, roller bladers, roller skaters, and skateboarders, which are omitted from the bicycle-related Missouri state statutes upon which local ordinances are often based.

It is discriminatory because it contains the so-called Far To the Right (FTR) requirement, present in state law, which essentially treats bicyclists as second-class road users by generally confining them in or close to the gutter even on multi-lane roads or when it is potentially unsafe. (The exception is the City of Ferguson, Missouri, the first in the state, which repealed the FTR language by ordinance on June 26, 2012.)

When a bike lane is added this reinforces the FTR law, putting a cyclist at risk of a car-bike collision from a right hook or left cross. The former is what happened to Susan Herzberg in November 2013 after a bike lane replaced the curb lane she formerly controlled only a month earlier. And when a bike lane is striped next to on-street parking, even with a so-called “buffer lane” to reduce the possibility, the bicyclist still risks serious injury or death resulting from a suddenly opened motorist’s door.

To address the above issues it is proposed that St. Louis County adopt the current Missouri State Statutes Regarding Bicyclists, but with equitable language replacing the current discriminatory Section 307.190. Riding To Right, Required For Bicycles And Motorized Bicycles.

Below is the relevant current language but with the changes indicated above to Section 307.190 highlighted in white:

Missouri State Statutes Regarding Bicyclists

300.330. Bicycle Lane Regulations

The driver of a motor vehicle shall not drive within any sidewalk area except as a permanent or temporary driveway. A designated bicycle lane shall not be obstructed by a parked or standing motor vehicle or other stationary object. A motor vehicle may be driven in a designated bicycle lane only for the purpose of a lawful maneuver to cross the lane or to provide for safe travel. In making an otherwise lawful maneuver that requires traveling in or crossing a designated bicycle lane, the driver of a motor vehicle shall yield to any bicycle in the lane. As used in this section, the term “designated bicycle lane” shall mean a portion of the roadway or highway that has been designated by the governing body having jurisdiction over such roadway or highway by striping with signing or striping with pavement markings for the preferential or exclusive use of bicycles.

300.347. Riding Bicycle On Sidewalks, Limitations – Motorized Bicycles Prohibited

(1) No person shall ride a bicycle upon a sidewalk within a business district; (2) Whenever any person is riding a bicycle upon a sidewalk, such person shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian and shall give audible signal before overtaking and passing such pedestrian; (3) No person shall ride a motorized bicycle upon a sidewalk.

300.350. Riding Bicycles, Sleds, Roller Skates, By Attaching To Another Vehicle, Prohibited

No person riding upon any bicycle, motorized bicycle, coaster, roller skates, sled or toy vehicle shall attach the same or himself to any vehicle upon a roadway.

Note: Should the above be omitted, or if not, limited to “bicycle or motorized bicycle”?

304.285. Red light violations

Any person operating a motorcycle or bicycle who violates the provisions of section 304.281 or section 304.301 by entering or crossing an intersection controlled by a traffic control signal against a red light shall have an affirmative defense to that charge if the person establishes all of the following conditions:

(1) The motorcycle or bicycle has been brought to a complete stop;

(2) The traffic control signal continues to show a red light for an unreasonable time;

(3) The traffic control is apparently malfunctioning or, if programmed or engineered to change to a green light only after detecting the approach of a motor vehicle, the signal has apparently failed to detect the arrival of the motorcycle; and

(4) No motor vehicle or person is approaching on the street or highway to be crossed or entered or is so far away from the intersection that it does not constitute an immediate hazard.

The affirmative defense of this section applies only to a violation for entering or crossing an intersection controlled by a traffic control signal against a red light and does not provide a defense to any other civil or criminal action.]

307.180. Bicycle And Motorized Bicycle, Defined

As used in sections 307.180 to 307.193: (1) The word bicycle shall mean every vehicle propelled solely by human power upon which any person may ride, having two tandem wheels, or two parallel wheels and one or two forward or rear wheels, all of which are more than fourteen inches in diameter, except scooters and similar devices; (2) The term motorized bicycle shall mean any two or three-wheeled device having an automatic transmission and a motor with a cylinder capacity of not more than fifty cubic centimeters, which produces less than three gross brake horsepower, and is capable of propelling the device at a maximum speed of not more than thirty miles per hour on level ground. A motorized bicycle shall be considered a motor vehicle for purposes of any homeowners- or renters- insurance policy.

307.183. Brakes Required

Every bicycle and motorized bicycle shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which will enable its driver to stop the bicycle or motorized bicycle within twenty-five feet from a speed of ten miles per hour on dry, level, clean pavement.

307.185 Lights And Reflectors, When Required – Standards To Be Met

Every bicycle and motorized bicycle when in use on a street or highway during the period from one-half hour after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise shall be equipped with the following: (1) A front-facing lamp
on the front or carried by the rider which shall emit a white light visible at night under normal atmospheric conditions on a straight, level, unlighted roadway at five hundred feet; (2) A rear-facing red reflector, at least two square inches in reflective surface area, or a rear-facing red lamp, on the rear which shall be visible at night under normal atmospheric conditions on a straight, level, unlighted roadway when viewed by a vehicle driver under the lower beams of vehicle head-lights at six hundred feet; (3) Reflective material and/or lights visible from the front and the rear on any moving part of the bicyclists, pedals, crank arms, shoes or lower leg, visible from the front and the rear at night under normal atmospheric conditions on a straight, level, unlighted roadway when viewed by a vehicle driver under the lawful lower beams of vehicle headlights at two hundred feet; and (4) Reflective material and/or lights visible on each side of the bicycle or bicyclist visible at night under normal atmospheric conditions on a straight, level, unlighted roadway when viewed by a vehicle driver under the lawful lower beams of vehicle headlights at three hundred feet. The provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to motorized bicycles which comply with National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration regulations relating to reflectors on motorized bicycles.

307.188. Rights And Duties Of Bicycle And Motorized Bicycle Riders

Every person riding a bicycle or motorized bicycle upon a street or highway shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle as provided by chapter 304, RSMo, except as to special regulations in sections 307.180 to 307.193 and except as to those provisions of chapter 304, RSMo, which by their nature can have no application.

307.190. Riding on roadways.

Every person operating a bicycle or motorized bicycle upon a street or highway shall ride as defined below:

1. On a multi-lane roadway, every person operating a bicycle or motorized bicycle shall ride in the right lane of travel while choosing to either control or share the lane; they may use the left lane of travel to pass a slower moving vehicle, to prepare for making a left turn, when on a one-way street, or to avoid an obstruction or potentially hazardous condition.

Bicyclists may ride two or more abreast in the lane.

2. On a two-lane or unlaned roadway, every person operating a bicycle or motorized bicycle at less than the posted speed limit or normal speed of traffic may control the lane to maximize their safety, such as when approaching the brow of a hill or a blind right hand bend, or when necessary to avoid hazardous conditions such as uneven pavement, pavement joints, potholes, drain covers, or debris.

At other times, if the lane is wide enough to allow passing with a safe clearance, a motorist shall pass a bicyclist with caution, the motorist moving into the adjoining lane when they are able to complete their pass without endangering the bicyclist or an oncoming driver, and crossing a solid yellow center line to do so if one is present.

3. The operator of a motor vehicle overtaking a bicyclist proceeding in the same direction on the roadway who violates the provisions 
of this section is guilty of an infraction unless an accident is involved, in which case it shall be a class C misdemeanor.

[Above new wording replaces: Riding To Right, Required For Bicycles And Motorized Bicycles

Every person operating a bicycle or motorized bicycle at less than the posted speed or slower than the flow of traffic upon a street or highway shall ride as near to the right side of the roadway as safe, exercising due care when passing a standing vehicle or one proceeding in the same direction, except when making a left turn, when avoiding hazardous conditions, when the lane is too narrow to share with another vehicle or when on a one-way street. Bicyclists may ride abreast when not impeding other vehicles.]

The following former section is also now incorporated into the above new section: 300.411 And 304.678 Overtake Bicycles At A Safe Distance

(1) The operator of a motor vehicle overtaking a bicycle proceeding in the same direction on the roadway, as defined in section 300.010, RSMo, shall leave a safe distance, when passing the bicycle, and shall maintain clearance until safely past the overtaken bicycle.

(2) Any person who violates the provisions 
of this section is guilty of an infraction unless an accident is involved in which case it shall be a class C misdemeanor.]

307.191. Shoulder Riding, Allowed But Not Required For Bicyclist Operators


(1) A person operating a bicycle at less than the posted speed or slower than the flow of traffic upon a street or highway may operate as described in section 307.190, or may operate on the shoulder adjacent to the roadway. (2) A bicycle operated on a roadway, or the shoulder adjacent to a roadway, shall be operated in the same direction as vehicles are required to be driven upon the roadway. (3) For purposes of this section and section 307.190, “roadway,” means that portion of a street or highway ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder.

307.192. Bicyclists May Signal Right Turn With Right Arm

The operator of a bicycle shall signal as required in section 304.019, RSMo, except that a signal by the hand and arm need not be given continuously if the hand is needed to control or operate the bicycle. An operator of a bicycle intending to turn the bicycle to the right shall signal as indicated in section 304.019, RSMo, or by extending such operator’s right arm in a horizontal position so that the same may be seen in front and in rear of the vehicle.

307.193. Penalty For Violation

Any person seventeen years of age or older who violates any provision of sections 307.180 to 307.193 is guilty of an infraction and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not less than five dollars nor more than twenty-five dollars. Such an infraction does not constitute a crime and conviction shall not give rise to any disability or legal disadvantage based on conviction of a criminal offense. If any person under seventeen years of age violates any provision of sections 307.180 to 307.193 in the presence of a peace officer possessing the duty and power of arrest for violation of the general criminal laws of the state or for violation of ordinances of counties or municipalities of the state, said officer may impound the bicycle or motorized bicycle involved for a period not to exceed five days upon issuance of a receipt to the child riding it or to its owner.






         

Pasted below is the current (as of 2014-10-04) St. Louis County ordinance pertaining to bicyclists on public roads, which was amended in 2001 by the addition of “scooter operators, roller bladers, roller skaters, and skateboarders” to “bicyclists.”

In 2008, a section was added in the Code of Ordinances under Department of Health making it mandatory for those over 1 and under 17 years of age to wear a bicycle safety helmet.

1210.010 Scope of Regulations.
https://library.municode.com/HTML/11512/level2/TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK.html#TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK_1210.050RIHIROAL

—These regulations apply to bicyclists, scooter operators, roller bladers, roller skaters, and skateboarders when such devices are operated upon any highway, roadway or alleyway or upon any path set aside for the exclusive use of such devices subject to those exceptions stated by this code. For purposes of this chapter, a “scooter” shall be defined as a device that typically has one (1) front and one (1) rear wheel with a low footboard between, is steered by a handlebar, and is propelled either by pushing one foot against the ground while resting the other foot on the footboard or by a motor. A scooter may have more than two (2) wheels.
(O. No. 20502, 5-29-01)

1210.020 Traffic Laws to Apply. https://library.municode.com/HTML/11512/level2/TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK.html#TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK_1210.020TRLAAP

—Every person operating a bicycle, scooter, roller blades, roller skates or skateboard upon a highway, roadway or alleyway is granted all of the rights and is subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by the laws of this State declaring rules of the road applicable to the driver of a vehicle, except as to special regulations in this chapter, and except as to those provisions of law and ordinance which by their nature can have no application.
(O. No. 20502, 5-29-01)

1210.030 Obedience to Traffic Control Devices.
https://library.municode.com/HTML/11512/level2/TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK.html#TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK_1210.030OBTRCODE

—1. Any person operating a bicycle, scooter, roller blades, roller skates or skateboard shall obey the instructions of official traffic control devices applicable to vehicles, unless otherwise directed by a law enforcement officer.

2.
Whenever authorized signs are erected indicating that no right or left or U turn is permitted, no person operating a bicycle, or scooter, shall disobey the direction of any such sign. Where such person dismounts from such devices to make any such turn, the person shall then obey the regulations applicable to pedestrians.
(O. No. 20502, 5-29-01)

1210.040 Riding on Bicycles, Scooters or Skateboards.
https://library.municode.com/HTML/11512/level2/TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK.html#TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK_1210.040RIBISCSK

—1. A person propelling a bicycle shall not ride on a seat other than a permanent and regularly attached seat.

2.
No bicycle, scooter or skateboard shall be used to carry more persons at one (1) time than the number for which it is designed and equipped.
(O. No. 20502, 5-29-01)

1210.050 Riding on Highways, Roads, Alleyways.
https://library.municode.com/HTML/11512/level2/TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK.html#TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK_1210.050RIHIROAL

—1. Every person operating a bicycle, or scooter, upon a highway, roadway or alleyway shall ride as near to the right side of the highway, roadway or alleyway as practicable and shall exercise due care when passing a standing vehicle or one proceeding in the same direction.

2.
Persons riding bicycles, scooters, roller blades, roller skates, or skateboards upon a road shall not ride more than two (2) abreast except when riding on paths or part of roads set aside for the exclusive use of such devices.
(O. No. 20502, 5-29-01)

1210.060 Speed.
https://library.municode.com/HTML/11512/level2/TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK.html#TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK_1210.060SP

—No person shall operate a bicycle, scooter, roller blades, roller skates, or skateboard at a speed greater than is reasonable and prudent under the existing conditions nor shall such operator exceed the legal speed limit for the roadway while riding upon the roadway.
(O. No. 20502, 5-29-01)

1210.070 Emerging from Alleyway, Private Roadway or Driveway.
https://library.municode.com/HTML/11512/level2/TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK.html#TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK_1210.070EMALPRRODR

—The operator of a bicycle, scooter, roller blades, roller skates or skateboard emerging from an alleyway, private roadway, driveway or building shall, upon approaching a sidewalk or the sidewalk area, yield the right-of-way to all pedestrians approaching on the sidewalk or sidewalk area. Upon entering the highway or roadway, the operator shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles approaching on the highway or roadway.
(O. No. 20502, 5-29-01)

1210.080 Carrying Articles.
https://library.municode.com/HTML/11512/level2/TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK.html#TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK_1210.080CAAR

—No person operating a bicycle or scooter shall carry any package, bundle or article which prevents the rider from keeping at least one (1) hand upon the handle bars.
(O. No. 20502, 5-29-01)

1210.090 Parking.
https://library.municode.com/HTML/11512/level2/TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK.html#TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK_1210.090PA

—No person shall park a bicycle or scooter upon a highway, roadway, or sidewalk in such a manner as to obstruct vehicular or pedestrian traffic.
(O. No. 20502, 5-29-01)

1210.100 Lamps and Other Equipment on Bicycles.
https://library.municode.com/HTML/11512/level2/TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK.html#TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK_1210.100LAOTEQBI

—1. Every bicycle or scooter when in use at nighttime shall be equipped with and shall use a lamp on the front which emits a white light visible from a distance of at least five hundred (500) feet to the front and with a red, white or yellow reflector on the rear of a type which is visible from all directions from fifty (50) feet to three hundred (300) feet to the rear when directly in front of lawful upper beams of headlamps on a motor vehicle. A lamp emitting a red light visible from a distance of five hundred (500) feet to the rear may be used in addition to the red reflector.

2.
Every bicycle or scooter shall be equipped with a brake which will enable the operator to make the braked wheel skid on dry, level, clean pavement.
(O. No. 20502, 5-29-01)

1210.107 Roller Skates, Roller Blades, and Skateboards—Use Restricted.
https://library.municode.com/HTML/11512/level2/TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK.html#TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK_1210.107ROSKROBLSKSERE

—No person upon roller skates, roller blades or a skateboard shall go upon any road except while crossing the road. When so crossing, such person shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to all other pedestrians.
(O. No. 20502, 5-29-01)

1210.110 Penalties.
https://library.municode.com/HTML/11512/level2/TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK.html#TITXIITRCO_CH1210REBISCOPROBLROSKSK_1210.110PE

—Every person convicted of a violation of any provision of this chapter shall be punished by a fine of not more than ten dollars ($10.00).
(O. No. 23830, 12-9-08)

In addition to the above is the following section, enacted in 2008, relating to mandatory helmet wearing for those >1 but <17 years old:

602.600 Bicyclists Under the Age of Seventeen to Wear Protective Headgear.
https://library.municode.com/HTML/11512/level2/TITVIPUHEWE_CH602PUHE.html#TITVIPUHEWE_CH602PUHE_602.600BIUNAGSEWEPRHE

—1. The provisions of this section shall apply throughout St. Louis County, except in cities having both a population of seventy-five thousand (75,000) or more and an organized health department.
2.
It shall be unlawful for a parent or guardian to permit a child of at least one year of age and who has not reached the age of seventeen to operate or be a passenger on a bicycle, a scooter, roller skates, roller blades or a skateboard unless the child shall wear protective headgear which properly fits and is fastened securely upon the head of the operator or passenger. The headgear shall meet or exceed the impact standard for protective bicycle helmets set by the U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Snell Memorial Foundation or the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM).
3.
Every person reasonably believed by a law enforcement officer to have violated the provisions of this section shall be issued a Notice of Violation on a form approved by the Director of Health. The Notice of Violation shall advise persons to whom it is issued of the dangers to children under the age of seventeen associated with operating bicycles and the items set out in subsection 2 hereof without protective headgear. The Director of Health shall keep and maintain records of all persons issued a Notice of Violation. Any person receiving more than two Notices of Violation within a twelve-month period shall be mailed a summons charging such person with having violated this ordinance.
4.
Every person convicted of a violation of this ordinance shall be punished by a fine of not more than ten dollars ($10.00).
(O. No. 23830, 12-9-08)






         

This story first grabbed the headlines back in April of this year, after cyclist Cherokee Schill was repeatedly ticketed for controlling the outside lane on busy multi-lane roads on her way to and from work.

Cyclist Cherokee Schill on her work commute

Cyclist Cherokee Schill on her work commute

She’s finally had her day in court but justice was evidently not done. The judge stated that she could have used the shoulder instead of controlling the lane, to which she replied: “I’m not going to change how I ride.”

This is the result of the discriminatory Far To the Right (FTR) law common in states throughout the U.S. It requires a cyclist to ride as far right as “safe” or “practicable,” with certain exceptions, including the ill-defined “when the lane is too narrow to share.” Repeal of this law, which may be easiest to accomplish at the local level, should be a major goal of cyclists wanting equal treatment on public roads.

In Missouri, so far only the City of Ferguson, population 21,000 in North St. Louis County, has taken this step by replacing its former FTR language, based on state law, with an ordinance explicitly allowing bicyclist lane control.

The story below mentions Steve Magas as co-defense counsel. Steve Magas, from Cincinnati, OH, frequently represents injured cyclists. He has an active website at www.ohiobikelawyer.com and can also be reached at 513.484.BIKE [2453]

I’m glad that Cherokee Schill plans to appeal, for which she will need financial assistance. If you wish to contribute you can do so by clicking Appeal fund.

Jessamine judge decides Nicholasville Road bicycle commuter violated law
BY GREG KOCHER September 12, 2014

Read more here: http://www.kentucky.com/2014/09/12/3426401/jessamine-judge-decides-nicholasville.html#storylink=cpy

NICHOLASVILLE — In a case watched by bicyclists inside and outside Kentucky, a woman who commutes by bike via U.S. 27 from Nicholasville to Lexington was found Friday to have violated a law on careless driving.

Jessamine District Court Judge Bill Oliver also found that Cherokee Schill had violated a law requiring slow-moving vehicles to move to as far to the right “as practicable.” Oliver imposed fines and court costs of $433, which Schill has a year to pay.

Schill, 41, said she plans to appeal the judge’s decision, which came at the end of a day-long trial.

She argued that the shoulder is hazardous because of debris and rumble strips that could cause her to fall. Her expert witnesses and defense attorneys argued that it is safer for a cyclist to be in the lane of travel so that cars behind her can see her clearly and have time to brake or merge left.

Schill said the judge’s ruling seems to ask her “to operate my bicycle carelessly by weaving in and out of traffic — going off the roadway, going forward, and then going off the roadway again, which is much, much more dangerous than just riding a straight line and operating predictably.”

She added, “I’m not going to change how I ride.”

Schill, the mother of two teenagers, said in an interview this year that she commutes by bike to help keep her household afloat and to reduce expenses. She said she has a car, but it is not dependable.

Schill was ticketed in Jessamine County three times this year, once while she was returning from her job at Webasto on Lexington’s north side and twice while she was en route to off-work activities.

She is no longer employed by Webasto but attends classes in Lexington to be an EKG technician.

Police officers who had ticketed her said she was causing a safety hazard for motorists on U.S. 27. Some 43,000 motor vehicles travel that section of road in northern Jessamine County each day, according to state traffic counts.

In each citation, the judge found that Schill could have used the shoulder rather than operating her bike in the roadway.

Before trial, Schill was cited only with three counts of careless driving. But on Friday immediately before trial, Assistant County Attorney Eric Wright added three more counts that said Schill had violated the following subsection of Kentucky law: “The operator of any vehicle moving slowly upon a highway shall keep his vehicle as closely as practicable to the right-hand boundary of the highway, allowing more swiftly moving vehicles reasonably free passage to the left.”

A rule of criminal procedure allows a prosecutor to add charges to clarify a citation, Wright said. He emphasized repeatedly that bikes are vehicles and, as such, must comply with all laws that apply to vehicles.

Kentucky defines “highway” as the lane of travel and the shoulder; for that reason, moving “as closely as practicable to the right-hand boundary” means moving to the shoulder, Wright said.

On roads where there are no paved shoulders and the cyclist has nowhere else to go, Oliver said the responsibility lies more with the motorist to give leeway to the cyclist.

But where a paved shoulder is available, Oliver said the responsibility lies more with the cyclist to choose a safer option.

Addressing Schill directly, Oliver said, “I will caution you at this point — you want to avoid any further violations of the law. I’m not telling you that you can’t have your bicycle out there. We’ve established that bicycles have some rights out there.

“I would encourage you to be careful,” Oliver said. “Almost every moment there is a different situation where you have to decide whether you have the right to be where you are or if you need to be further to the right. That’s not an easy thing for you to do or for anyone else. But it is, I think under the current law, what you have to do.”

Steve Magas

Steve Magas

Steve Magas was co-defense counsel for Schill along with Chuck Ellinger. Magas, whose practice is in Cincinnati, has represented cyclists in Ohio and elsewhere.

“This is the only case that I’m aware of in the country where a bicyclist who has a right to ride on the road has been ordered off the road,” Magas said. “The question was, how does this impact nationally? I don’t think it does. I think what it does is irritate cyclists and make them want to affect some change in Kentucky.”

Read more here: http://www.kentucky.com/2014/09/12/3426401/jessamine-judge-decides-nicholasville.html#storylink=cpy

This groundbreaking article by Dan Gutierrez and Amanda Eichstaedt was first published in the League of American Bicyclists members’ magazine, the American Bicyclist, in December 2007. It makes a strong case for the need for a 6th E, Equality, to underpin the other five accepted Es.

As stated in the article:

“Cyclists need legislative “Equality” as transportation users. … This would really be the primary E to describe the way cyclists are treated by lawmakers. With all Six Es in place, our lives as advocates would be easier, since we can use the set of Es to tell lawmakers, and everyone else what cyclists expect from the government:

* Equality – state laws that treat cyclists as well as other road users
* Engineering – sound transport agency road and special facility development
* Enforcement – consistent and fair police and court treatment of bicyclists
* Education – widespread traffic skills training such as the Bike Ed program
* Encouragement – public campaigns aimed at promoting cycling
* Evaluation – ways for govt. to measure the effectiveness of the other Es.”

Please click the following to view the article:

Equality for cyclists 6th E Gutierrez & Eichstaedt

The following ordinance has been copied from the language in Missouri State Statutes except for changes to remove the discriminatory Far To the Right (FTR) language, replacing 307.190 with the following, based on Ferguson’s 2012 ordinance (with proposed revisions):

Riding on roadways.
Every person operating a bicycle or motorized bicycle at less than the posted speed or slower than the flow of traffic upon a street or highway may ride in the center of the right lane of travel or may ride to the right side of the roadway; such person may use the left lane of travel to prepare for making a left turn, or when on a one-way street. Every person operating a bicycle or motorized bicycle on a roadway shall exercise due care when passing a standing vehicle or one proceeding in the same direction, when making turns, and when streets or lanes are too narrow to share with motor vehicles, including lanes nominally 12 feet wide. Bicyclists may ride two abreast in the right lane of travel or when making a left turn when also allowed for a solo cyclist.

Missouri Revised Statutes

Chapter 307
Vehicle Equipment Regulations
August 28, 2013

Bicycle and motorized bicycle, defined.
307.180. As used in sections 307.180 to 307.193:

(1) The word “bicycle” shall mean every vehicle propelled solely by human power upon which any person may ride, having two tandem wheels, or two parallel wheels and one or two forward or rear wheels, all of which are more than fourteen inches in diameter, except scooters and similar devices;

(2) The term “motorized bicycle” shall mean any two- or three-wheeled device having an automatic transmission and a motor with a cylinder capacity of not more than fifty cubic centimeters, which produces less than three gross brake horsepower, and is capable of propelling the device at a maximum speed of not more than thirty miles per hour on level ground. A motorized bicycle shall be considered a motor vehicle for purposes of any homeowners’ or renters’ insurance policy.

(L. 1977 H.B. 79 § 1, A.L. 1980 H.B. 995 & 1051, A.L. 1988 H.B. 990, A.L. 2005 H.B. 487 merged with S.B. 372)

Brakes required.
307.183. Every bicycle and motorized bicycle shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which will enable its driver to stop the bicycle or motorized bicycle within twenty-five feet from a speed of ten miles per hour on dry, level, clean pavement.

(L. 1977 H.B. 79 § 2, A.L. 1980 H.B. 995 & 1051)
Effective 6-20-80

Lights and reflectors, when required–standards to be met.
307.185. Every bicycle and motorized bicycle when in use on a street or highway during the period from one-half hour after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise shall be equipped with the following:

(1) A front-facing lamp on the front or carried by the rider which shall emit a white light visible at night under normal atmospheric conditions on a straight, level, unlighted roadway at five hundred feet;

(2) A rear-facing red reflector, at least two square inches in reflective surface area, or a rear-facing red lamp, on the rear which shall be visible at night under normal atmospheric conditions on a straight, level, unlighted roadway when viewed by a vehicle driver under the lower beams of vehicle headlights at six hundred feet;

(3) Reflective material and/or lights on any part of the bicyclist’s pedals, crank arms, shoes or lower leg, visible from the front and the rear at night under normal atmospheric conditions on a straight, level, unlighted roadway when viewed by a vehicle driver under the lawful lower beams of vehicle headlights at two hundred feet; and

(4) Reflective material and/or lights visible on each side of the bicycle or bicyclist and visible at night under normal atmospheric conditions on a straight, level, unlighted roadway when viewed by a vehicle driver under the lawful lower beams of vehicle headlights at three hundred feet. The provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to motorized bicycles which comply with National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration regulations relating to reflectors on motorized bicycles.

(L. 1977 H.B. 79 § 3, A.L. 1980 H.B. 995 & 1051, A.L. 1995 S.B. 471)

Rights and duties of bicycle and motorized bicycle riders.
307.188. Every person riding a bicycle or motorized bicycle upon a street or highway shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle as provided by chapter 304, except as to special regulations in sections 307.180 to 307.193 and except as to those provisions of chapter 304 which by their nature can have no application.

(L. 1977 H.B. 79 § 4, A.L. 1980 H.B. 995 & 1051)

Riding to right, required for bicycles and motorized bicycles.
307.190. Every person operating a bicycle or motorized bicycle at less than the posted speed or slower than the flow of traffic upon a street or highway shall ride as near to the right side of the roadway as safe, exercising due care when passing a standing vehicle or one proceeding in the same direction, except when making a left turn, when avoiding hazardous conditions, when the lane is too narrow to share with another vehicle, or when on a one-way street. Bicyclists may ride abreast when not impeding other vehicles.

(L. 1977 H.B. 79 § 5, A.L. 1980 H.B. 995 & 1051, A.L. 1995 S.B. 471)

Bicycle to operate on the shoulder adjacent to roadway, when–roadway defined.
307.191. 1. A person operating a bicycle at less than the posted speed or slower than the flow of traffic upon a street or highway may operate as described in section 307.190 or may operate on the shoulder adjacent to the roadway.

2. A bicycle operated on a roadway, or on the shoulder adjacent to a roadway, shall be operated in the same direction as vehicles are required to be driven upon the roadway.

3. For purposes of this section and section 307.190, “roadway” is defined as and means that portion of a street or highway ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder.

(L. 2005 H.B. 487 merged with S.B. 372)

Bicycle required to give hand or mechanical signals.
307.192. The operator of a bicycle shall signal as required in section 304.019, except that a signal by the hand and arm need not be given continuously if the hand is needed in the control or operation of or to control or operate the bicycle. An operator of a bicycle intending to turn the bicycle to the right shall signal as indicated in section 304.019 or by extending such operator’s right arm in a horizontal position so that the same may be seen in front of and in the rear of the bicycle.

(L. 2005 H.B. 487 merged with S.B. 372)

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